Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000082
UniProt IDP51649
Primary gene name(s)ALDH5A1
Synonym gene name(s)SSADH
Protein nameSuccinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Protein functionCatalyzes one step in the degradation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid, GABA. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19300440}.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P51649
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
acetate metabolic process [GO:0006083];
central nervous system development [GO:0007417];
galactosylceramide metabolic process [GO:0006681];
gamma-aminobutyric acid catabolic process [GO:0009450];
glucose metabolic process [GO:0006006];
glucosylceramide metabolic process [GO:0006678];
glutamate metabolic process [GO:0006536];
glutamine metabolic process [GO:0006541];
glutathione metabolic process [GO:0006749];
glycerophospholipid metabolic process [GO:0006650];
neurotransmitter catabolic process [GO:0042135];
post-embryonic development [GO:0009791];
protein homotetramerization [GO:0051289];
respiratory electron transport chain [GO:0022904];
short-chain fatty acid metabolic process [GO:0046459];
succinate metabolic process [GO:0006105]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
aldehyde dehydrogenase, NAD activity [GO:0004029];
carboxylic acid binding [GO:0031406];
NAD binding [GO:0051287];
protein homodimerization activity [GO:0042803];
succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, NAD+ activity [GO:0004777];
succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [NAD(P+] activity [GO:0009013]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
mitochondrial matrix [GO:0005759];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739]
Protein-protein interaction113645
Phylogenetic treeP51649
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.3367253301481450.3587778788252130.480453148791969
AZA vs. DISU-0.3887817194717590.1542181255470820.736295207806145
AZA vs. IL70.04952490096391270.818428780684620.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-1.632601091425880.02047883661000620.156858731229285
DISU vs. CD3-0.7375588554171420.05225856301561680.111997611941464
DISU vs. IL70.4299131189302590.1116832225655670.437365583564967
DISU vs. SAHA-1.242361026328040.07627934202446020.349849654184613
DMSO vs. AZA0.0125406874741840.9488024081658961
DMSO vs. CD3-0.3333989119326940.3553804011030080.46934388906959
DMSO vs. DISU0.4002091331507630.1279717534775420.614574354654733
DMSO vs. IL70.04326956980106030.8307500413947380.963051812112721
DMSO vs. SAHA-1.653305957121970.01868490373566640.13575301054536
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.1067756164976090.8981124577095090.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.133285158274370.4689175342969080.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.2755836610212910.4585732980533010.59172633402203
SAHA vs. CD3-1.996671231329270.008455730248644540.0223009896477202
SAHA vs. IL7-1.687906991902330.01592407028811340.0867697642012667
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -1.4426 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.985 0.925 0.986 1.036 0.941
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00534 Chlormerodrin approved, withdrawn unknown inhibitor
DB00157 NADH nutraceutical unknown unknown
DB00139 Succinic acid approved, nutraceutical unknown inhibitor
DB00313 Valproic Acid approved, investigational unknown inhibitor

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2W8N X-ray 2.0Å A=49-535.
2W8O X-ray 3.4Å A=49-535.
2W8P X-ray 2.3Å A=49-535.
2W8Q X-ray 2.4Å A=49-535.
2W8R X-ray 2.4Å A=49-535.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00250 Alanine# aspartate and glutamate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00650 Butanoate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)