Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000080
UniProt IDP54886
Primary gene name(s)ALDH18A1
Synonym gene name(s)GSAS, P5CS, PYCS
Protein nameDelta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase
Protein functionBifunctional enzyme that converts glutamate to glutamate 5-semialdehyde, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of proline, ornithine and arginine. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:10037775, ECO:0000269|PubMed:11092761, ECO:0000269|PubMed:26297558, ECO:0000269|PubMed:26320891}.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion inner membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:26297558, ECO:0000269|PubMed:26320891}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P54886
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cellular amino acid biosynthetic process [GO:0008652];
citrulline biosynthetic process [GO:0019240];
glutamate metabolic process [GO:0006536];
L-proline biosynthetic process [GO:0055129];
ornithine biosynthetic process [GO:0006592];
proline biosynthetic process [GO:0006561]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase activity [GO:0017084];
glutamate 5-kinase activity [GO:0004349];
glutamate-5-semialdehyde dehydrogenase activity [GO:0004350];
poly(A RNA binding [GO:0044822]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
mitochondrial inner membrane [GO:0005743];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739]
Protein-protein interaction111790
Phylogenetic treeP54886
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.385031246703363.53322634540909e-050.000193224918280137
AZA vs. DISU-0.4913508429210130.05316330217517720.512842910345661
AZA vs. IL70.3519667261256780.06829563024354120.743412597007618
AZA vs. SAHA0.1477555878293240.5455174976810580.845638357209332
DISU vs. CD3-1.887571858105335.15326766592494e-075.33885613719262e-06
DISU vs. IL70.8340073723619730.001025010028473110.0277379896401641
DISU vs. SAHA0.6405543891141520.02872626147863720.202081792113659
DMSO vs. AZA0.06142738348737040.7153937931492961
DMSO vs. CD3-1.334440161038134.53815558657533e-050.000222204858735465
DMSO vs. DISU0.5511045125310310.02463814978390940.320913498049711
DMSO vs. IL70.2978395535783480.09904761627579250.573183422402139
DMSO vs. SAHA0.07998809262961960.734874017234650.922556127758718
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.004673054215745960.9940027723592910.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.04019586693414330.8085542541425890.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.026013742956930.001624562170723380.00643379548063937
SAHA vs. CD3-1.261216828375450.0004556671338433740.00180803151843592
SAHA vs. IL7-0.2070375241039960.395826331957990.643683249025735
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
-0.3037 0.04236

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.0348431 0.85477
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.968 1.018 0.92 0.877 0.918
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00142 L-Glutamic Acid nutraceutical unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2H5G X-ray 2.2Å A/B=362-795.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 complexes with 23125841
Gag-Pol complexes with 23125841
Pr55(Gag) complexes with 23125841
Nef complexes with 23125841

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00330 Arginine and proline metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01230 Biosynthesis of amino acids - Homo sapiens (human)