Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000079
UniProt IDQ13740
Primary gene name(s)ALCAM
Synonym gene name(s)MEMD
Protein nameCD166 antigen
Protein functionCell adhesion molecule that mediates both heterotypic cell-cell contacts via its interaction with CD6, as well as homotypic cell-cell contacts, PubMed:7760007, PubMed:15496415, PubMed:15048703, PubMed:16352806, PubMed:23169771, PubMed:24945728. Promotes T-cell activation and proliferation via its interactions with CD6, PubMed:15048703, PubMed:16352806, PubMed:24945728. Contributes to the formation and maturation of the immunological synapse via its interactions with CD6, PubMed:15294938, PubMed:16352806. Mediates homotypic interactions with cells that express ALCAM, PubMed:15496415, PubMed:16352806. Required for normal hematopoietic stem cell engraftment in the bone marrow, PubMed:24740813. Mediates attachment of dendritic cells onto endothelial cells via homotypic interaction, PubMed:23169771. Inhibits endothelial cell migration and promotes endothelial tube formation via homotypic interactions, PubMed:15496415, PubMed:23169771. Required for normal organization of the lymph vessel network. Required for normal hematopoietic stem cell engraftment in the bone marrow. Plays a role in hematopoiesis; required for normal numbers of hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow. Promotes in vitro osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, By similarity. Promotes neurite extension, axon growth and axon guidance; axons grow preferentially on surfaces that contain ALCAM. Mediates outgrowth and pathfinding for retinal ganglion cell axons, By similarity. {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P42292, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15048703, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15294938, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15496415, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16352806, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24945728, ECO:0000269|PubMed:7760007}.; FUNCTION: Isoform 3: Inhibits activities of membrane-bound isoforms by competing for the same interaction partners. Inhibits cell attachment via homotypic interactions. Promotes endothelial cell migration. Inhibits endothelial cell tube formation. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15496415}.
Subcellular locationCell membrane {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15048703, ECO:0000269|PubMed:15294938, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16352806, ECO:0000269|PubMed:23169771, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24740813, ECO:0000269|PubMed:24945728, ECO:0000269|PubMed:7760007};
Single-pass type I membrane protein {ECO:0000305}. Cell projection, axon {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q61490}. Cell projection, dendrite {ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:Q61490}. Note=Detected at the immunological synapse, i.e, at the contact zone between antigen-presenting dendritic cells and T-cells, PubMed:15294938, PubMed:16352806. Colocalizes with CD6 and the TCR/CD3 complex at the immunological synapse, PubMed:15294938. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15294938, ECO:0000269|PubMed:16352806}.;
SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Isoform 3: Secreted {ECO:0000269|PubMed:15496415}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q13740
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
adaptive immune response [GO:0002250];
axon extension involved in axon guidance [GO:0048846];
cell adhesion [GO:0007155];
heterophilic cell-cell adhesion via plasma membrane cell adhesion molecules [GO:0007157];
motor neuron axon guidance [GO:0008045];
neuron projection extension [GO:1990138];
retinal ganglion cell axon guidance [GO:0031290];
signal transduction [GO:0007165]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
receptor binding [GO:0005102]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
axon [GO:0030424];
dendrite [GO:0030425];
external side of plasma membrane [GO:0009897];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
focal adhesion [GO:0005925];
immunological synapse [GO:0001772];
integral component of plasma membrane [GO:0005887];
intrinsic component of plasma membrane [GO:0031226];
neuronal cell body [GO:0043025]
Protein-protein interaction106716
Phylogenetic treeQ13740
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      Yes - >3 <4 SD (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.356703547309130.000451855366335630.00181900750037676
AZA vs. DISU-0.04941657127624120.9150459503349630.994271142470137
AZA vs. IL7-0.2444614915743210.5505994355909860.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA1.125659033954830.003972902306256020.0527717744634334
DISU vs. CD3-1.41813256340230.000821842794406780.00349465409324128
DISU vs. IL7-0.2035698030970930.6410384631049170.894523096975627
DISU vs. SAHA1.1743035076780.006192523996039310.0750221295372255
DMSO vs. AZA-0.1131345828173240.7655932120584921
DMSO vs. CD3-1.485712812800568.02181499326426e-064.71328560349166e-05
DMSO vs. DISU-0.06724879248891820.8683149584836850.985542797999996
DMSO vs. IL7-0.1233502271383860.7179851186283080.942536102613384
DMSO vs. SAHA1.23140123963417.99053991284993e-050.00297346733398917
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.4173763452752610.504825435055720.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.07963859864746820.63779893156710.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.591227417545369.77886968200892e-067.56657611483164e-05
SAHA vs. CD3-0.2577587104731950.4659397698810730.57777604970853
SAHA vs. IL71.365764720588580.0001317860629836960.00243747621278066
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.246917 0.0976942
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.988 1.117 0.891 0.763 1.113
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1KJC Model - A=28-133.
5A2F X-ray 1.8Å A=1-583.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
HIV-1 virus replication inhibited by expression of human gene 22082156

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04514 Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) - Homo sapiens (human)