Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000072
UniProt IDP54819
Primary gene name(s)AK2
Synonym gene name(s)ADK2
Protein nameAdenylate kinase 2, mitochondrial
Protein functionCatalyzes the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group between ATP and AMP. Plays an important role in cellular energy homeostasis and in adenine nucleotide metabolism. Adenylate kinase activity is critical for regulation of the phosphate utilization and the AMP de novo biosynthesis pathways. Plays a key role in hematopoiesis. {ECO:0000255|HAMAP-Rule:MF_03168, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19043416}.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion intermembrane space {ECO:0000255|HAMAP-Rule:MF_03168}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P54819
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
ADP biosynthetic process [GO:0006172];
AMP metabolic process [GO:0046033];
ATP metabolic process [GO:0046034];
nucleobase-containing small molecule interconversion [GO:0015949]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
adenylate kinase activity [GO:0004017];
ATP binding [GO:0005524]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
mitochondrial inner membrane [GO:0005743];
mitochondrial intermembrane space [GO:0005758];
sperm mitochondrial sheath [GO:0097226]
Protein-protein interaction106707
Phylogenetic treeP54819
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: numerous RNA and DNA viruses
      Viral life cycle: translation
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: targets EIF2A
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.542454475672754.37743881387398e-062.938831082526e-05
AZA vs. DISU-0.4521481404334470.07449683650150040.586404863406589
AZA vs. IL70.2923549059042310.1280790824863380.897328354403451
AZA vs. SAHA-0.2617196162257050.2831643150859570.655271157970478
DISU vs. CD3-2.006173314246049.44407918535006e-081.1833753087279e-06
DISU vs. IL70.7349800816887170.003717240250349140.0621946690055641
DISU vs. SAHA0.1921930547312940.5098697979401190.830460145331843
DMSO vs. AZA0.003760743131409010.9820669917866221
DMSO vs. CD3-1.54819993261282.37595442431626e-061.57196984639106e-05
DMSO vs. DISU0.4546106371024710.06302501442428890.477423609620826
DMSO vs. IL70.2956154883958540.09990661402905370.575717679889655
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.2718710901085940.2486475115835240.596615399524136
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.09939748879321370.8729412941329570.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.01920454706430730.9074529076228790.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.243423254330510.0001464031693664270.000815798510854031
SAHA vs. CD3-1.827834973983575.69862433907886e-074.92139076159991e-06
SAHA vs. IL7-0.556504016400130.0225324761361890.108654684989416
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
1.9 0.000311093 1.3 0.045818353 1.6 0.118315856
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 1.61773 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
0.071 0.002

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.044 0.946 0.966 0.873 0.862
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB01717 Bis(Adenosine)-5&,39;-Pentaphosphate experimental unknown unknown
DB00300 Tenofovir approved, investigational unknown substrate
DB00718 Adefovir Dipivoxil approved, investigational unknown substrate

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2C9Y X-ray 2.1Å A=1-239.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Vpr downregulates 23874603

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00230 Purine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00730 Thiamine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)