Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000052
UniProt IDP30520
Primary gene name(s)ADSS
Synonym gene name(s)ADSS2
Protein nameAdenylosuccinate synthetase isozyme 2
Protein functionPlays an important role in the de novo pathway and in the salvage pathway of purine nucleotide biosynthesis. Catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of AMP from IMP.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm. Note=Partially associated with particulate fractions.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P30520
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
'de novo' AMP biosynthetic process [GO:0044208];
AMP biosynthetic process [GO:0006167];
aspartate metabolic process [GO:0006531];
cellular response to electrical stimulus [GO:0071257];
immune system process [GO:0002376];
IMP metabolic process [GO:0046040];
purine ribonucleoside monophosphate biosynthetic process [GO:0009168];
response to ammonium ion [GO:0060359];
response to purine-containing compound [GO:0014074]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
adenylosuccinate synthase activity [GO:0004019];
GTP binding [GO:0005525];
magnesium ion binding [GO:0000287];
phosphate ion binding [GO:0042301]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886]
Protein-protein interaction106668
Phylogenetic treeP30520
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      unknown
Brass et al., Science, 2008
      unknown
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
      unknown
Interferon-stimulated
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model


DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.049220301572410.001499197067345580.00517779518767933
AZA vs. DISU-0.228144386367760.3680732578201350.896211275303082
AZA vs. IL70.2474414385986680.198323133120590.962745438172834
AZA vs. SAHA-0.3525457306602730.1491011227585660.491482686302782
DISU vs. CD3-1.290435796043180.0004578932446023250.00211466996603415
DISU vs. IL70.4667131262354880.06474758950675770.337157137068868
DISU vs. SAHA-0.1235324034089410.6726928899625290.900623710132027
DMSO vs. AZA-0.07210110977861420.6672546291129981
DMSO vs. CD3-1.132084512429310.0004622098022032390.00174288617600381
DMSO vs. DISU0.1543537341663080.5275120769757830.91669822417263
DMSO vs. IL70.3266705839722290.06956364081482690.504738090031108
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.287825781129860.2228381091865140.568063792887341
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.1423560110589570.8188541303931380.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.03838126002667480.8164640872627350.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.7931856565464020.01397820886805790.0392499147295523
SAHA vs. CD3-1.426817068394757.32577936264356e-050.000365077695089413
SAHA vs. IL7-0.6038775656830450.01348257815935320.077211948254183
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.128333 0.412407
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.979 0.911 0.77 0.628 0.826
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00128 L-Aspartic Acid approved, nutraceutical unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2V40 X-ray 1.9Å A=21-456.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00230 Purine metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00250 Alanine# aspartate and glutamate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
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