Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000047
UniProt IDP35318
Primary gene name(s)ADM
Synonym gene name(s)AM
Protein nameADM [Cleaved into: Adrenomedullin
Protein functionAM and PAMP are potent hypotensive and vasodilatator agents. Numerous actions have been reported most related to the physiologic control of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. In the kidney, am is diuretic and natriuretic, and both am and pamp inhibit aldosterone secretion by direct adrenal actions. In pituitary gland, both peptides at physiologically relevant doses inhibit basal ACTH secretion. Both peptides appear to act in brain and pituitary gland to facilitate the loss of plasma volume, actions which complement their hypotensive effects in blood vessels.
Subcellular locationSecreted.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P35318
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
aging [GO:0007568];
androgen metabolic process [GO:0008209];
animal organ regeneration [GO:0031100];
antibacterial humoral response [GO:0019731];
blood circulation [GO:0008015];
branching involved in labyrinthine layer morphogenesis [GO:0060670];
cAMP biosynthetic process [GO:0006171];
cAMP-mediated signaling [GO:0019933];
cell-cell signaling [GO:0007267];
defense response to Gram-negative bacterium [GO:0050829];
defense response to Gram-positive bacterium [GO:0050830];
developmental growth [GO:0048589];
female pregnancy [GO:0007565];
G-protein coupled receptor internalization [GO:0002031];
heart development [GO:0007507];
hormone secretion [GO:0046879];
negative regulation of cell proliferation [GO:0008285];
negative regulation of vascular permeability [GO:0043116];
negative regulation of vasoconstriction [GO:0045906];
neural tube closure [GO:0001843];
neuron projection regeneration [GO:0031102];
odontogenesis of dentin-containing tooth [GO:0042475];
positive regulation of angiogenesis [GO:0045766];
positive regulation of apoptotic process [GO:0043065];
positive regulation of cAMP biosynthetic process [GO:0030819];
positive regulation of cell proliferation [GO:0008284];
positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration [GO:0007204];
positive regulation of heart rate [GO:0010460];
positive regulation of vasculogenesis [GO:2001214];
positive regulation of vasodilation [GO:0045909];
progesterone biosynthetic process [GO:0006701];
receptor internalization [GO:0031623];
regulation of the force of heart contraction [GO:0002026];
response to cold [GO:0009409];
response to glucocorticoid [GO:0051384];
response to hypoxia [GO:0001666];
response to insulin [GO:0032868];
response to lipopolysaccharide [GO:0032496];
response to starvation [GO:0042594];
response to wounding [GO:0009611];
signal transduction [GO:0007165];
spongiotrophoblast layer development [GO:0060712];
vascular smooth muscle cell development [GO:0097084];
vasculogenesis [GO:0001570]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
receptor binding [GO:0005102]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular region [GO:0005576];
extracellular space [GO:0005615]
Protein-protein interaction106645
Phylogenetic treeP35318
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. DISU0.5687423930549950.3660190284450120.896211275303082
AZA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
AZA vs. SAHA0.1474622391577930.804952542903310.949812495634012
DISU vs. CD31.686466415491830.005939793277549790.0187589448702672
DISU vs. IL7-1.457062150074750.007453084937162010.096774552478654
DISU vs. SAHA-0.4233123295164670.4621401035345030.800119649301005
DMSO vs. AZAunknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. DISU-1.069162612798130.1015919767628760.572469160742217
DMSO vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
DMSO vs. SAHAunknownunknownunknown
HIV vs. Mock in Activationunknownunknownunknown
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.001655022152211960.9970441896041990.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
SAHA vs. CD3unknownunknownunknown
SAHA vs. IL7unknownunknownunknown
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.571426 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2FLY NMR - A=22-41.
2L7S NMR - A=95-146.
4RWF X-ray 1.7Å B=119-146.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found