Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000043
UniProt IDP78563
Primary gene name(s)ADARB1
Synonym gene name(s)ADAR2, DRADA2, RED1
Protein nameDouble-stranded RNA-specific editase 1
Protein functionCatalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA, dsRNA referred to as A-to-I RNA editing. This may affect gene expression and function in a number of ways that include mRNA translation by changing codons and hence the amino acid sequence of proteins; pre-mRNA splicing by altering splice site recognition sequences; RNA stability by changing sequences involved in nuclease recognition; genetic stability in the case of RNA virus genomes by changing sequences during viral RNA replication; and RNA structure-dependent activities such as microRNA production or targeting or protein-RNA interactions. Can edit both viral and cellular RNAs and can edit RNAs at multiple sites, hyper-editing or at specific sites, site-specific editing. Its cellular RNA substrates include: bladder cancer-associated protein, BLCAP, neurotransmitter receptors for glutamate, GRIA2 and GRIK2 and serotonin, HTR2C, GABA receptor, GABRA3 and potassium voltage-gated channel, KCNA1. Site-specific RNA editing of transcripts encoding these proteins results in amino acid substitutions which consequently alter their functional activities. Edits GRIA2 at both the Q/R and R/G sites efficiently but converts the adenosine in hotspot1 much less efficiently. Can exert a proviral effect towards human immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1 and enhances its replication via both an editing-dependent and editing-independent mechanism. The former involves editing of adenosines in the 5'UTR while the latter occurs via suppression of EIF2AK2/PKR activation and function. Can inhibit cell proliferation and migration and can stimulate exocytosis. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:18178553, ECO:0000269|PubMed:19908260, ECO:0000269|PubMed:21289159}.
Subcellular locationNucleus. Nucleus, nucleolus. Note=Shuttles between nucleoli and the nucleoplasm.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P78563
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
adenosine to inosine editing [GO:0006382];
base conversion or substitution editing [GO:0016553];
defense response to virus [GO:0051607];
innate immune response [GO:0045087];
mRNA processing [GO:0006397];
negative regulation of cell migration [GO:0030336];
negative regulation of cell proliferation [GO:0008285];
negative regulation of protein kinase activity by regulation of protein phosphorylation [GO:0044387];
positive regulation of viral genome replication [GO:0045070];
regulation of cell cycle [GO:0051726];
RNA processing [GO:0006396]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase activity [GO:0003726];
double-stranded RNA binding [GO:0003725];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872];
mRNA binding [GO:0003729];
poly(A RNA binding [GO:0044822];
RNA binding [GO:0003723]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
nucleolus [GO:0005730];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction106618
Phylogenetic treeP78563
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-1.338475700076276.33585468616804e-050.000322177534925576
AZA vs. DISU-0.08555455947650270.7357439857894860.974560663114398
AZA vs. IL70.06934940064918230.718254014226660.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.08341266159457620.7325369946765270.925643771606674
DISU vs. CD31.240413273322510.0008907292373493410.00375051746474971
DISU vs. IL70.1458251209246240.5642609756102060.859128795810913
DISU vs. SAHA0.004068020189611490.98893024299250.999274089415579
DMSO vs. AZA0.07085565214178580.6722684568009631
DMSO vs. CD31.397909592508431.96540118907462e-050.000105594753614155
DMSO vs. DISU0.1547231210368140.5267272396691090.91669822417263
DMSO vs. IL70.005841229809696660.9740786222224040.995403297501227
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.1603385970804390.4968259641362740.812298797527731
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.04494029409952130.9424586788260370.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.1561974656114290.3741171776194290.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD31.414503662523371.6534869355711e-050.000119995226672428
SAHA vs. CD31.230837338763570.0006029322851144330.00230321661259176
SAHA vs. IL7-0.1559734494685430.5217867221231450.743914976760076
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.119813 0.584422
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
1ZY7 X-ray 1.7Å A/B=299-741.
5ED1 X-ray 2.7Å A/D=299-741.
5ED2 X-ray 2.9Å A/D=299-741.
5HP2 X-ray 2.9Å A/D=299-741.
5HP3 X-ray 3.0Å A/D=299-741.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 inhibits 9103436

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found