Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000038
UniProt IDQ04771
Primary gene name(s)ACVR1
Synonym gene name(s)ACVRLK2
Protein nameActivin receptor type-1
Protein functionOn ligand binding, forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. Type II receptors phosphorylate and activate type I receptors which autophosphorylate, then bind and activate SMAD transcriptional regulators. Receptor for activin. May be involved for left-right pattern formation during embryogenesis, By similarity. {ECO:0000250}.
Subcellular locationMembrane;
Single-pass type I membrane protein.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q04771
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
activin receptor signaling pathway [GO:0032924];
acute inflammatory response [GO:0002526];
atrial septum primum morphogenesis [GO:0003289];
atrioventricular valve morphogenesis [GO:0003181];
BMP signaling pathway [GO:0030509];
BMP signaling pathway involved in heart development [GO:0061312];
cardiac muscle cell fate commitment [GO:0060923];
cellular response to BMP stimulus [GO:0071773];
determination of left/right symmetry [GO:0007368];
embryonic heart tube morphogenesis [GO:0003143];
endocardial cushion cell fate commitment [GO:0061445];
endocardial cushion fusion [GO:0003274];
endocardial cushion morphogenesis [GO:0003203];
G1/S transition of mitotic cell cycle [GO:0000082];
gastrulation with mouth forming second [GO:0001702];
germ cell development [GO:0007281];
in utero embryonic development [GO:0001701];
mesoderm formation [GO:0001707];
mitral valve morphogenesis [GO:0003183];
negative regulation of activin receptor signaling pathway [GO:0032926];
negative regulation of extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway [GO:2001237];
negative regulation of signal transduction [GO:0009968];
neural crest cell migration [GO:0001755];
pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation [GO:0060389];
patterning of blood vessels [GO:0001569];
peptidyl-threonine phosphorylation [GO:0018107];
pharyngeal system development [GO:0060037];
positive regulation of bone mineralization [GO:0030501];
positive regulation of cell migration [GO:0030335];
positive regulation of determination of dorsal identity [GO:2000017];
positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition involved in endocardial cushion formation [GO:1905007];
positive regulation of osteoblast differentiation [GO:0045669];
positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation [GO:0010862];
positive regulation of transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0045893];
positive regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0045944];
protein phosphorylation [GO:0006468];
regulation of ossification [GO:0030278];
smooth muscle cell differentiation [GO:0051145];
transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway [GO:0007179];
ventricular septum morphogenesis [GO:0060412]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
activin binding [GO:0048185];
activin receptor activity, type I [GO:0016361];
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872];
peptide hormone binding [GO:0017046];
protein homodimerization activity [GO:0042803];
protein kinase activity [GO:0004672];
protein serine/threonine kinase activity [GO:0004674];
receptor signaling protein serine/threonine kinase activity [GO:0004702];
SMAD binding [GO:0046332];
transforming growth factor beta binding [GO:0050431];
transforming growth factor beta receptor activity, type I [GO:0005025];
transmembrane receptor protein serine/threonine kinase activity [GO:0004675]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
activin receptor complex [GO:0048179];
apical part of cell [GO:0045177];
integral component of plasma membrane [GO:0005887]
Protein-protein interaction106605
Phylogenetic treeQ04771
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.171733047813170.003367250022442090.0103977038185305
AZA vs. DISU0.2091522033643930.4103680485381670.908181551778406
AZA vs. IL7-0.03417307147121260.8596826157289270.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.1913497826246290.4342509996100830.783189706643024
DISU vs. CD3-0.9748034242267160.01120868237599940.0319013654574343
DISU vs. IL7-0.2524630735966750.3174034068457480.699768286650519
DISU vs. SAHA-0.01648961466590360.9551588931682840.98963286669457
DMSO vs. AZA0.03160083380835010.8625574412200481
DMSO vs. CD3-1.152580919719760.003622616720788670.010450923190096
DMSO vs. DISU-0.1796727074800180.4632233371767820.893710880969672
DMSO vs. IL7-0.05857446655917160.7459453648813750.950269764295326
DMSO vs. SAHA0.1532784295881270.5168247022069310.822223331509479
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.08033927967113460.9239531501679840.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.02054228788199120.9014075993873470.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.198286607988640.001768346671990.00693219489906507
SAHA vs. CD3-1.005200215090270.01646326975115680.0390957256775815
SAHA vs. IL70.2220392885356580.3646770851320880.615671611241789
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.384891 0.00674641
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00171 Adenosine triphosphate approved, nutraceutical unknown unknown
DB08597 6-[4-(2-piperidin-1-ylethoxy)phenyl]-3-pyridin-4-ylpyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
3H9R X-ray 2.3Å A=172-499.
3MTF X-ray 2.1Å A/B=201-499.
3OOM X-ray 2.0Å A=201-499.
3Q4U X-ray 1.8Å A/B/C/D=201-499.
4BGG X-ray 2.5Å A/B/C/D=201-499.
4C02 X-ray 2.1Å A=172-499.
4DYM X-ray 2.4Å A=201-499.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 upregulates 24162774

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04060 Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04350 TGF-beta signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04550 Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells - Homo sapiens (human)