Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000037
UniProt IDP61158
Primary gene name(s)ACTR3
Synonym gene name(s)ARP3
Protein nameActin-related protein 3
Protein functionFunctions as ATP-binding component of the Arp2/3 complex which is involved in regulation of actin polymerization and together with an activating nucleation-promoting factor, NPF mediates the formation of branched actin networks. Seems to contact the pointed end of the daughter actin filament. Plays a role in ciliogenesis. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:20393563, ECO:0000269|PubMed:9000076}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm, cytoskeleton {ECO:0000269|PubMed:19109554}. Cell projection {ECO:0000269|PubMed:9230079}. Note=In pre-apoptotic cells, colocalizes with MEFV in large specks, pyroptosomes, PubMed:19109554.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P61158
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation [GO:0034314];
asymmetric cell division [GO:0008356];
cilium assembly [GO:0060271];
ephrin receptor signaling pathway [GO:0048013];
establishment or maintenance of cell polarity [GO:0007163];
Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis [GO:0038096];
meiotic chromosome movement towards spindle pole [GO:0016344];
meiotic cytokinesis [GO:0033206];
movement of cell or subcellular component [GO:0006928];
spindle localization [GO:0051653]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
structural constituent of cytoskeleton [GO:0005200]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
actin cytoskeleton [GO:0015629];
Arp2/3 protein complex [GO:0005885];
brush border [GO:0005903];
cell-cell junction [GO:0005911];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
focal adhesion [GO:0005925];
lamellipodium [GO:0030027];
membrane [GO:0016020]
Protein-protein interaction115403
Phylogenetic treeP61158
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.1971726416590810.5532140146813160.664597611133174
AZA vs. DISU-0.1217638798653120.6295656491336060.960057478314726
AZA vs. IL70.4424097427745220.02112766952688420.464901259530985
AZA vs. SAHA-0.3876157526880830.1115610436592210.425665385841723
DISU vs. CD3-0.3313903030697140.3715290120542660.505590712982396
DISU vs. IL70.55527927229250.02778963365141680.213739146579137
DISU vs. SAHA-0.2649705117788880.3627463234570510.736837586251643
DMSO vs. AZA-0.0706149682616980.6718640708498141
DMSO vs. CD3-0.2775819987191010.3920118996354280.506532229866003
DMSO vs. DISU0.04969021220597630.8383394479570840.982408668795743
DMSO vs. IL70.520107967445420.003768698762416920.122149752177376
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.3245969547977870.1677740025819030.495012136435368
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.1262724143961670.8471590771311940.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.04709706451926170.7755136430442150.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.2536830080716060.4348327220072960.570131664823936
SAHA vs. CD3-0.6098230400035320.09002336653361050.160133632396307
SAHA vs. IL7-0.8335016810487940.0006525463717808040.00845058763593114
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.076581 0.651444
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.984 1.015 1.145 1.261 1.076
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
213102_at 1.47 No upregulated in CD8+ cells

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB08235 N-[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]thiophene-2-carboxamide experimental unknown unknown
DB08236 (2S)-2-(3-bromophenyl)-3-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-thiazolidin-4-one experimental unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
HIV-1 virus replication requires expression of human gene 26018170
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 cooperates with 20585556
Tat upregulates 23166591
Pr55(Gag) required by 26018170
HIV-1 virus replication enhanced by expression of human gene 24415754

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04530 Tight junction - Homo sapiens (human)