Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000036
UniProt IDO96019
Primary gene name(s)ACTL6A
Synonym gene name(s)BAF53, BAF53A, INO80K
Protein nameActin-like protein 6A
Protein functionInvolved in transcriptional activation and repression of select genes by chromatin remodeling, alteration of DNA-nucleosome topology. Required for maximal ATPase activity of SMARCA4/BRG1/BAF190A and for association of the SMARCA4/BRG1/BAF190A containing remodeling complex BAF with chromatin/nuclear matrix. Belongs to the neural progenitors-specific chromatin remodeling complex, npBAF complex and is required for the proliferation of neural progenitors. During neural development a switch from a stem/progenitor to a post-mitotic chromatin remodeling mechanism occurs as neurons exit the cell cycle and become committed to their adult state. The transition from proliferating neural stem/progenitor cells to post-mitotic neurons requires a switch in subunit composition of the npBAF and nBAF complexes. As neural progenitors exit mitosis and differentiate into neurons, npBAF complexes which contain ACTL6A/BAF53A and PHF10/BAF45A, are exchanged for homologous alternative ACTL6B/BAF53B and DPF1/BAF45B or DPF3/BAF45C subunits in neuron-specific complexes, nBAF. The npBAF complex is essential for the self-renewal/proliferative capacity of the multipotent neural stem cells. The nBAF complex along with CREST plays a role regulating the activity of genes essential for dendrite growth, By similarity. Component of the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase, HAT complex which is involved in transcriptional activation of select genes principally by acetylation of nucleosomal histones H4 and H2A. This modification may both alter nucleosome - DNA interactions and promote interaction of the modified histones with other proteins which positively regulate transcription. This complex may be required for the activation of transcriptional programs associated with oncogene and proto-oncogene mediated growth induction, tumor suppressor mediated growth arrest and replicative senescence, apoptosis, and DNA repair. NuA4 may also play a direct role in DNA repair when recruited to sites of DNA damage. Putative core component of the chromatin remodeling INO80 complex which is involved in transcriptional regulation, DNA replication and probably DNA repair. {ECO:0000250, ECO:0000269|PubMed:14966270}.
Subcellular locationNucleus {ECO:0000269|PubMed:18026119}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: O96019
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling [GO:0043044];
chromatin remodeling [GO:0006338];
DNA recombination [GO:0006310];
DNA repair [GO:0006281];
histone H2A acetylation [GO:0043968];
histone H4 acetylation [GO:0043967];
neural retina development [GO:0003407];
positive regulation of protein targeting to mitochondrion [GO:1903955];
regulation of growth [GO:0040008];
regulation of mitophagy [GO:1903146];
regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter [GO:0006357];
signal transduction [GO:0007165];
spinal cord development [GO:0021510];
transcription, DNA-templated [GO:0006351]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
chromatin binding [GO:0003682];
transcription coactivator activity [GO:0003713]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
Ino80 complex [GO:0031011];
npBAF complex [GO:0071564];
NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex [GO:0035267];
nuclear chromatin [GO:0000790];
nucleoplasm [GO:0005654];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886];
protein complex [GO:0043234];
SWI/SNF complex [GO:0016514]
Protein-protein interaction106601
Phylogenetic treeO96019
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
      unknown
Brass et al., Science, 2008
      unknown
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
      unknown
Interferon-stimulated
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model


DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.342580683168755.97860749621537e-050.000305249228262053
AZA vs. DISU0.02594922411083050.918403013893290.99439786176034
AZA vs. IL70.3128233922185760.1050831605703220.848376260994353
AZA vs. SAHA0.07525905169484160.7582332003991030.934780886894001
DISU vs. CD3-1.329733518898920.0003242034758026420.00157089141570204
DISU vs. IL70.2778628105319140.2707325817318910.657763133637109
DISU vs. SAHA0.05070926585335610.8619724969840870.962987302666301
DMSO vs. AZA0.04794324823084270.7759278999269791
DMSO vs. CD3-1.306425945584316.27638326654578e-050.000297338722989032
DMSO vs. DISU0.01999820049480840.9347561411780730.99119945388848
DMSO vs. IL70.272164993720220.1315474552201940.629769015105758
DMSO vs. SAHA0.02072745799629880.9300718804136950.983640241617277
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.02997653090671030.9615290869302530.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.02135202557966570.8976936884445930.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.021849983897340.001692233508605480.00667024991506548
SAHA vs. CD3-1.291852738743550.0003524895901857450.00144860052470662
SAHA vs. IL7-0.2408670622662070.3237503021622980.573705329428243
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.0749401 0.695721
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.994 0.928 0.95 0.909 0.921
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Tat induces phosphorylation of 21699904
Tat interacts with 19454010
19716452

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
not found
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