Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000035
UniProt IDP63261
Primary gene name(s)ACTG1
Synonym gene name(s)ACTG
Protein nameActin, cytoplasmic 2
Protein functionActins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm, cytoskeleton.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P63261
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cell junction assembly [GO:0034329];
ephrin receptor signaling pathway [GO:0048013];
Fc-gamma receptor signaling pathway involved in phagocytosis [GO:0038096];
movement of cell or subcellular component [GO:0006928];
platelet aggregation [GO:0070527];
retina homeostasis [GO:0001895];
sarcomere organization [GO:0045214];
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling pathway [GO:0048010]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
identical protein binding [GO:0042802];
structural constituent of cytoskeleton [GO:0005200];
ubiquitin protein ligase binding [GO:0031625]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
blood microparticle [GO:0072562];
cytoskeleton [GO:0005856];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
dense body [GO:0097433];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
extracellular space [GO:0005615];
filamentous actin [GO:0031941];
focal adhesion [GO:0005925];
membrane [GO:0016020];
myelin sheath [GO:0043209];
myofibril [GO:0030016];
nucleus [GO:0005634];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886]
Protein-protein interaction106586
Phylogenetic treeP63261
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.3671620563796010.2632652524542740.377329288389339
AZA vs. DISU-0.4964388470943040.05005291711076140.501327357161208
AZA vs. IL70.2421464122042430.2063506717657070.970014097526061
AZA vs. SAHA-0.1304120566387930.5917416259500450.865809107319435
DISU vs. CD3-0.8754722797366780.01743941270697110.0458626152497732
DISU vs. IL70.729096280622910.004088338247065230.0664134688302891
DISU vs. SAHA0.368284261837830.2071782294882750.581381688385248
DMSO vs. AZA-0.01102615523425370.9472391977503981
DMSO vs. CD3-0.3895960456399080.2232161678923310.326227354413849
DMSO vs. DISU0.4835129866327060.04843433793266120.437962285935482
DMSO vs. IL70.2606093619666780.1455484130500350.646627282384002
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.1248197334744080.5953557883770190.862897668224231
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.1382008838144630.8240856568121080.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.03686397346139880.8222890375242450.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.1188750128635010.7108727950549360.804669993981905
SAHA vs. CD3-0.520764260199710.1415670116327170.230241189866721
SAHA vs. IL7-0.3745008917687070.1235324747866480.325888786302752
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) FALSE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.341988 0.0726683
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
5JLH EM 3.9Å A/B/C/D/E=2-375.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

HIV Partner Interaction Type PubMed
Tat induces rearrangement of 14694110
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 interacts with 18443296
reverse transcriptase co-localizes with 9841925
Pr55(Gag) co-localizes with 23260110
Nef inhibits 20147394
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 induces reorganization of 22535526
Envelope transmembrane glycoprotein gp41 inhibits 10556093
Pr55(Gag) interacts with 17360745
Pr55(Gag) binds 8661406
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 induces reorganization of 18775311
Vpr enhances polymerization of 9199338
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp160; precursor interacts with 17360745
matrix interacts with 9841925
Envelope surface glycoprotein gp120 relocalizes 19710135
Nef downregulates 23071112
Tat regulated by 22465675
Pr55(Gag) requires 19883584
Tat downregulates 16526095
nucleocapsid binds 23017337
Nef associates with 9288906
Tat interacts with 24742657
reverse transcriptase interacts with 23017337
retropepsin cleaves 1540415
Vpr downregulates 23874603
Nef induces rearrangement of 14597672

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa04015 Rap1 signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04145 Phagosome - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04210 Apoptosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04390 Hippo signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04510 Focal adhesion - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04520 Adherens junction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04530 Tight junction - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04611 Platelet activation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04670 Leukocyte transendothelial migration - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04810 Regulation of actin cytoskeleton - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04919 Thyroid hormone signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04921 Oxytocin signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05100 Bacterial invasion of epithelial cells - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05110 Vibrio cholerae infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05130 Pathogenic Escherichia coli infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05131 Shigellosis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05132 Salmonella infection - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05164 Influenza A - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05205 Proteoglycans in cancer - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05410 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05412 Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05414 Dilated cardiomyopathy - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa05416 Viral myocarditis - Homo sapiens (human)