Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000033
UniProt IDP33121
Primary gene name(s)ACSL1
Synonym gene name(s)FACL1, FACL2, LACS, LACS1, LACS2
Protein nameLong-chain-fatty-acid--CoA ligase 1
Protein functionActivation of long-chain fatty acids for both synthesis of cellular lipids, and degradation via beta-oxidation. Preferentially uses palmitoleate, oleate and linoleate.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion outer membrane {ECO:0000250};
Single-pass type III membrane protein {ECO:0000250}. Peroxisome membrane {ECO:0000250};
Single-pass type III membrane protein {ECO:0000250}. Microsome membrane {ECO:0000250};
Single-pass type III membrane protein {ECO:0000250}. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane {ECO:0000250};
Single-pass type III membrane protein {ECO:0000250}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P33121
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
adiponectin-activated signaling pathway [GO:0033211];
alpha-linolenic acid metabolic process [GO:0036109];
fatty acid transport [GO:0015908];
linoleic acid metabolic process [GO:0043651];
lipid biosynthetic process [GO:0008610];
long-chain fatty acid import [GO:0044539];
long-chain fatty acid metabolic process [GO:0001676];
long-chain fatty-acyl-CoA biosynthetic process [GO:0035338];
positive regulation of protein serine/threonine kinase activity [GO:0071902];
response to drug [GO:0042493];
response to nutrient [GO:0007584];
response to oleic acid [GO:0034201];
response to organic cyclic compound [GO:0014070];
triglyceride metabolic process [GO:0006641];
xenobiotic catabolic process [GO:0042178]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase activity [GO:0004467]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
endoplasmic reticulum membrane [GO:0005789];
integral component of membrane [GO:0016021];
membrane [GO:0016020];
mitochondrial outer membrane [GO:0005741];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
peroxisomal membrane [GO:0005778];
plasma membrane [GO:0005886]
Protein-protein interaction108476
Phylogenetic treeP33121
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD31.895009939486312.27762423365974e-082.49117216616252e-07
AZA vs. DISU0.1075157658118720.6735729797544530.96445964444266
AZA vs. IL70.2528607648322180.1952740324705080.958003422925385
AZA vs. SAHA0.261469222742950.2895883401656570.662004039984398
DISU vs. CD3-1.80049793743641.43143308051208e-061.32376823654227e-05
DISU vs. IL70.136491949111340.5906601001875570.872927752590788
DISU vs. SAHA0.1559451458477710.5966847705327460.87077972440623
DMSO vs. AZA0.02398277048965920.8886984164646541
DMSO vs. CD3-1.881921183474791.2643017077707e-081.32268786302539e-07
DMSO vs. DISU-0.08511722952393360.729306960860060.965871143368065
DMSO vs. IL70.236059293260890.1962199836557170.706476296539274
DMSO vs. SAHA0.2310770549256770.3330801050956320.687310815204631
HIV vs. Mock in Activation-0.06746417027660430.9137445133748760.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.1663111404742420.3232358541604410.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-1.634584852084297.13741987956595e-077.20578230707955e-06
SAHA vs. CD3-1.658085651434455.46367969067596e-063.6889629452727e-05
SAHA vs. IL70.00566948244071520.9816168341372850.993613494344979
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.799589 0.000305467
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB00131 Adenosine monophosphate approved, nutraceutical unknown product of
DB00171 Adenosine triphosphate approved, nutraceutical unknown unknown

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00061 Fatty acid biosynthesis - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00071 Fatty acid degradation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01212 Fatty acid metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa03320 PPAR signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04146 Peroxisome - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa04920 Adipocytokine signaling pathway - Homo sapiens (human)