Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000029
UniProt IDP21399
Primary gene name(s)ACO1
Synonym gene name(s)IREB1
Protein nameCytoplasmic aconitate hydratase
Protein functionIron sensor. Binds a 4Fe-4S cluster and functions as aconitase when cellular iron levels are high. Functions as mRNA binding protein that regulates uptake, sequestration and utilization of iron when cellular iron levels are low. Binds to iron-responsive elements, IRES in target mRNA species when iron levels are low. Binding of a 4Fe-4S cluster precludes RNA binding. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:1946430, ECO:0000269|PubMed:8041788}.; FUNCTION: Catalyzes the isomerization of citrate to isocitrate via cis-aconitate. {ECO:0000250}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P21399
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
cellular iron ion homeostasis [GO:0006879];
citrate metabolic process [GO:0006101];
intestinal absorption [GO:0050892];
post-embryonic development [GO:0009791];
regulation of translation [GO:0006417];
response to iron(II ion [GO:0010040];
tricarboxylic acid cycle [GO:0006099]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
4 iron, 4 sulfur cluster binding [GO:0051539];
aconitate hydratase activity [GO:0003994];
iron-responsive element binding [GO:0030350];
metal ion binding [GO:0046872];
RNA binding [GO:0003723]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
cytosol [GO:0005829];
endoplasmic reticulum [GO:0005783];
extracellular exosome [GO:0070062];
Golgi apparatus [GO:0005794];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739]
Protein-protein interaction106564
Phylogenetic treeP21399
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.1092752077090510.7421339242727890.820468165967834
AZA vs. DISU0.247577676432620.3407195073589520.880262543573058
AZA vs. IL7-0.06980800900663110.7301473424483830.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA1.118255132026049.87802677054894e-060.000664738283657387
DISU vs. CD30.1252486096168920.7324929920431960.812898429070097
DISU vs. IL7-0.3261794365435960.206577836643460.585243829162515
DISU vs. SAHA0.872563038389390.003684646856236820.0521112871567427
DMSO vs. AZA-0.03940792117453650.8260053197522251
DMSO vs. CD3-0.1620593326136940.6171247254293280.710887290762565
DMSO vs. DISU-0.2892316108344710.2484307451898890.767598853546516
DMSO vs. IL7-0.02314032140865570.9029309099488860.979523619218739
DMSO vs. SAHA1.152223744038552.45944134946718e-060.000179063964144058
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.5617725806934750.3768411728949170.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency-0.02992487963347960.8647584962890530.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.1722384654137170.5973075813840790.714427644358214
SAHA vs. CD30.9846873372894190.006383034173703450.0175790067612776
SAHA vs. IL71.185855508117872.91433021337717e-060.00011380987988717
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK -0.280375 0.090709
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.011 0.925 1.087 1.132 1.095
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
-0.7 0.0282 -0.23 0.1585 0.17 0.0986 Protein Synthesis at 4; 8; and 20 hip
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

Drugbank ID Drug Name Drug Status Pharmacological Action Drug Action
DB06757 Manganese approved, nutraceutical unknown Other

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2B3X X-ray 2.5Å A=2-889.
2B3Y X-ray 1.8Å A/B=2-889.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00020 Citrate cycle (TCA cycle) - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00630 Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01200 Carbon metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01210 2-Oxocarboxylic acid metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01230 Biosynthesis of amino acids - Homo sapiens (human)