Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000022
UniProt IDP49748
Primary gene name(s)ACADVL
Synonym gene name(s)VLCAD
Protein nameVery long-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Protein functionActive toward esters of long-chain and very long chain fatty acids such as palmitoyl-CoA, mysritoyl-CoA and stearoyl-CoA. Can accommodate substrate acyl chain lengths as long as 24 carbons, but shows little activity for substrates of less than 12 carbons. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:18227065}.
Subcellular locationMitochondrion inner membrane.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: P49748
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
energy derivation by oxidation of organic compounds [GO:0015980];
epithelial cell differentiation [GO:0030855];
fatty acid beta-oxidation [GO:0006635];
fatty acid beta-oxidation using acyl-CoA dehydrogenase [GO:0033539];
IRE1-mediated unfolded protein response [GO:0036498];
lipid homeostasis [GO:0055088];
negative regulation of fatty acid biosynthetic process [GO:0045717];
negative regulation of fatty acid oxidation [GO:0046322];
regulation of cholesterol metabolic process [GO:0090181];
temperature homeostasis [GO:0001659];
very long-chain fatty acid catabolic process [GO:0042760]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity [GO:0003995];
electron carrier activity [GO:0009055];
fatty-acyl-CoA binding [GO:0000062];
flavin adenine dinucleotide binding [GO:0050660];
long-chain-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity [GO:0004466];
oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-CH group of donors, with a flavin as acceptor [GO:0052890];
very-long-chain-acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity [GO:0017099]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytoplasm [GO:0005737];
mitochondrial inner membrane [GO:0005743];
mitochondrial matrix [GO:0005759];
mitochondrial nucleoid [GO:0042645];
mitochondrion [GO:0005739];
nucleolus [GO:0005730];
nucleus [GO:0005634]
Protein-protein interaction106555
Phylogenetic treeP49748
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD30.0286054716888260.9305587372878230.955147186625039
AZA vs. DISU0.6382625533082280.01177578711016720.263756634321933
AZA vs. IL7-0.09126639311816520.6341338671686390.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA0.5296986127971210.03034662285466130.200898108437051
DISU vs. CD30.5939164293708690.1036606461509020.191916062402197
DISU vs. IL7-0.7386417458732310.003469244972661660.0602521520309614
DISU vs. SAHA-0.1051113647965450.7181150786625940.916945890919593
DMSO vs. AZA0.04623867657323670.7818541961189641
DMSO vs. CD30.004182857769813620.9896070081737190.992823227321166
DMSO vs. DISU-0.5942801327641830.01497485710871830.256884999069128
DMSO vs. IL7-0.1300145836462940.468529852546380.877511184884666
DMSO vs. SAHA0.4785419517888090.0426744060422570.230683634671039
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.4197451970792350.5026572271190530.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.009006685086667340.9563413304791960.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD3-0.1142455142985090.7226466171772790.813457576909333
SAHA vs. CD30.4771652598505240.1826664362945310.281614649100622
SAHA vs. IL70.6180970190569210.01148182927265840.068744318380748
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
0.4309 0.0312

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.137996 0.378838
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
1.053 0.894 0.904 0.841 0.818
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

PDB Accession Method Resolution Chain Structure Preview
2UXW X-ray 1.4Å A=72-655.
3B96 X-ray 1.9Å A=69-655.

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00071 Fatty acid degradation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01100 Metabolic pathways - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa01212 Fatty acid metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)