Detailed entry information

Protein Information (annotations from UniProt)

Database IDHIV0000002
UniProt IDQ86V21
Primary gene name(s)AACS
Synonym gene name(s)ACSF1
Protein nameAcetoacetyl-CoA synthetase
Protein functionActivates acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA. May be involved in utilizing ketone body for the fatty acid-synthesis during adipose tissue development, By similarity. {ECO:0000250}.
Subcellular locationCytoplasm, cytosol {ECO:0000250}.
ECO codeClick here for more information.
Amino acid sequence
FASTA format: Q86V21
Gene Ontology
(Biological Process)
Complete annatation
adipose tissue development [GO:0060612];
cellular response to cholesterol [GO:0071397];
cellular response to glucose stimulus [GO:0071333];
cellular response to testosterone stimulus [GO:0071394];
fatty acid metabolic process [GO:0006631];
ketone body biosynthetic process [GO:0046951];
liver development [GO:0001889];
positive regulation of insulin secretion [GO:0032024];
response to drug [GO:0042493];
response to ethanol [GO:0045471];
response to nutrient [GO:0007584];
response to oleic acid [GO:0034201];
response to purine-containing compound [GO:0014074];
response to starvation [GO:0042594];
white fat cell differentiation [GO:0050872]
Gene Ontology
(Molecular Function)
Complete annatation
acetoacetate-CoA ligase activity [GO:0030729];
ATP binding [GO:0005524];
butyrate-CoA ligase activity [GO:0047760]
Gene Ontology
(Cellular Component)
Complete annatation
cytosol [GO:0005829]
Protein-protein interaction122434
Phylogenetic treeQ86V21
HIV replication factor status Zhou et al., Cell. Host. Microbe., 2008
Brass et al., Science, 2008
Smith et al., J. Immunol, 2010
gene status
Lu et al., J. Virol., 2011
      Folds changes 8h: unknown; Folds changes 16h: unknown; Tested: unknown;
Schoggins JW and Rice CM, Curr. Opin. Virol., 2011
      Targeted viruses: unknown
      Viral life cycle: unknown
      Mechanism related to antiviral activity: unknown
Anti-viral restriction factor Liu et al., Retrovirology, 2011
      unknown (Triplicates)

Gene Expression Profile       top

            Up-regulated;            Down-regulated

For brief introduction to each study, please go to the help page.

Gene expression during HIV latency

(1). Mohammadi et al., PLoS Pathog., 2014

Differentially expressed transcripts (Pairwise) during latency and subsequent viral reactivation using several agents - Primary CD4+ T-cell based model

DMSO: Dimethyl suloxyde (negative control) - 0.0033% final
SAHA: Vorinostat (Histone deacetylase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
CD3: TCR Stimulation by IL-2+ antiCD3/anti-CD28 antibodies
IL7: Interleukin-7 based stimulation
DISU: Disulfiram (alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor) - 0.5 μM
AZA: 5-azacytidine (AZA; DNA methylation inhibitor) - 1 μM
Experimental Condition Log2 Fold Change P value Adjusted P value
AZA vs. CD3-0.5204434952695740.1135670447008560.194974655169302
AZA vs. DISU0.01896031917500110.9404328588287970.996198528027442
AZA vs. IL70.03888189929821190.8407817654048640.999311006273513
AZA vs. SAHA-0.09346539638081590.7028458056917580.916198459316712
DISU vs. CD30.5274655917256690.1469897975734520.25192998392521
DISU vs. IL70.009834153638477310.9689416217573860.995379686713869
DISU vs. SAHA-0.1094870395046270.7077604566863760.913563472598201
DMSO vs. AZA0.06746338372900050.7175680010120481
DMSO vs. CD30.5798706345484320.07110733010417860.129017454898163
DMSO vs. DISU0.04753629431586490.845943099398680.982583769983649
DMSO vs. IL7-0.02166306818592770.90473698065360.980026989967316
DMSO vs. SAHA-0.1668359355697450.481042369501070.804121590472176
HIV vs. Mock in Activation0.2393363674391590.7011228345426270.999983755607037
HIV vs. Mock in Latency0.2170553471626060.193889299313080.999834320637052
IL7 vs. CD30.5639451468287690.08058501209297450.160287396051386
SAHA vs. CD30.4043866114982740.2539084598501060.363760860342342
SAHA vs. IL7-0.1339283078286110.5838179380778340.786526043435332
(2). Iglesias-Ussel et al., J. Virol., 2013

Up and Downregulated transcripts during Latency (Latently infected CD4+ T cells vs Uninfected)- Primary CD4+Tcell based model
Log2 Fold Change P Value
unknown unknown

Gene expression during HIV infection and replication

(1). Imbeault et al., PloS Pathog., 2012

Transcriptomic profiling of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells - Primary CD4+ T cells
Experiment type Log2 Fold Change P Value Adjusted P Value
Infected vs. Mock unknown unknown unknown
Infected vs. Bystander unknown unknown unknown
(2). Lefebvre et al., J. Virol., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)
Log2 Fold Change unknown
(3). Li et al., J. Immunol., 2013

Lymphatic tissue
Acute Fold Change Acute P Value Asymt Fold Change Asypt P Value AIDS Fold Change AIDS P Value
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(4). Chang et al., MBio., 2011

Transcriptome analysis of T-cell line (Sup T1)

Derived from Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015 cross validation
Up-regulated (True) TRUE
(5). Sherrill-Mix et al., BMC Retrovirol., 2015

Deep RNA-seq analysis of primary human T cell infected with low passage HIV isolate HIV89.6 - Primary CD4+ T cell based
Test Status Log2 Fold Change P Value
OK 0.0769891 0.67129
(6). Rotger et al., PLoS Pathog., 2010

Genome-wide mRNA expression of CD4+ T cells from HIV-infected patient
(Genes differentially expressed (at adjusted p<0.01) according to the empirical Bayes approach)
Log2 Fold Change P Value
-0.018 0.007

Proteomic/Transcriptomics studies indicating differentially expressed genes mediated by HIV

(1). Greenwood et al., Elife, 2016

Activated (CD3/CD28) Primary human CD4+ T cells infected with pNL4-3-dE-EGFP. The table shows the complete (unfiltered) TMT (tandem mass tag)-based proteomic time course dataset
6 h 24 h 48 h 72 h RTi
0.988 0.998 1.14 1.435 1.406
(2). Navare et al., Virology, 2012

SUP-T1 cell line
FC-4hpi P-value FC-8hpi P-value FC-20hpi P-value Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown unknown
(3). Hyrcza et al., J. Virolo., 2007

Primary human CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells
Affymetrix Prob ID Fold Change In CD8? Category
unknown unknown unknown unknown

Protein Overview       top

Drug-protein Interaction       (annotations from DrugBank)      top

not found

Protein Secondary Structure       (annotations from PDB)      top

not found

HIV-1 Interaction       (annotations from NCBI HIV-1 Interaction Database)      top

not found

Metabolic/Signalling Pathway       (annotations from KEGG database)      top

Pathway Accession Number Description
hsa00280 Valine# leucine and isoleucine degradation - Homo sapiens (human)
hsa00650 Butanoate metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)